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Xu hướng công nghệ về blockchain - Tài liệu Tiếng Anh
Tóm tắt tài liệu tiếng Anh
NutBaaS: A Blockchain-as-a-Service Platform
Blockchain, originated from Bitcoin system, has drawn intense attention from the academic community because of its decentralization, persistency, anonymity and auditability. In the past decade, the blockchain technology has evolved and became viable for various applications beyond the domain of ﬁnance. However, due to the complexity of blockchain technology, it is usually difﬁcult and costly for most developers or teams to build, maintain and monitor a blockchain network that supports their applications. Most common developers or teams are unable to ensure the reliability and security of the blockchain system, which to a certain extent affects the quality of their applications. In this paper, we develop a BaaS platform called NutBaaS, which provides blockchain service over cloud computing environments, such as network deployment and system monitoring, smart contracts analysis and testing. Based on these services, developers can focus on the business code to explore how to apply blockchain technology more appropriately to their business scenarios, without bothering to maintain and monitor the system.
Dextt: Deterministic Cross-Blockchain Token Transfers
Current blockchain technologies provide very limited interoperability. Restrictions with regard to asset transfers and data exchange between different blockchains reduce the usability and comfort of users, and hinder novel developments within the blockchain space. As a ﬁrst step towards blockchain interoperability, we propose the DeXTT cross-blockchain transfer protocol, which can be used to record a token transfer on any number of blockchains simultaneously in a decentralized manner. We provide a reference implementation using Solidity, and evaluate its performance. We show logarithmic scalability of DeXTT with respect to the number of participating nodes, and analyze cost requirements of the transferred tokens.
Blockchain-Enabled Smart Contracts: Architecture, Applications, and Future Trends
In recent years, the rapid development of cryptocurrencies and their underlying blockchain technology has revived Szabo’s original idea of smart contracts, i.e., computer protocols that are designed to automatically facilitate, verify, and enforce the negotiation and implementation of digital contracts without central authorities. Smart contracts can ﬁnd a wide spectrum of potential application scenarios in the digital economy and intelligent industries, including ﬁnancial services, management, healthcare, and Internet of Things, among others, and also have been integrated into the mainstream blockchain-based development platforms, such as Ethereum and Hyperledger. However, smart contracts are still far from mature, and major technical challenges such as security and privacy issues are still awaiting further research efforts. For instance, the most notorious case might be “The DAO Attack” in June 2016, which led to more than $50 million Ether transferred into an adversary’s account. In this paper, we strive to present a systematic and comprehensive overview of blockchain-enabled smart contracts, aiming at stimulating further research toward this emerging research area. We ﬁrst introduced the operating mechanism and mainstream platforms of blockchain-enabled smart contracts, and proposed a research framework for smart contracts based on a novel six-layer architecture. Second, both the technical and legal challenges, as well as the recent research progresses, are listed. Third, we presented several typical application scenarios. Toward the end, we discussed the future development trends of smart contracts. This paper is aimed at providing helpful guidance and reference for future research efforts.
Delay and Communication Tradeoffs for Blockchain Systems With Lightweight IoT Clients
The emerging blockchain protocols provide a decentralized architecture that is suitable of supporting Internet of Things (IoT) interactions. However, keeping a local copy of the blockchain ledger is infeasible for low-power and memoryconstrained devices. For this reason, they are equipped with lightweight software implementations that only download the useful data structures, e.g., state of accounts, from the blockchain network, when they are updated. In this paper, we consider and analyze a novel scheme, implemented by the nodes of the blockchain network, which aggregates the blockchain data in periodic updates and further reduces the communication cost of the connected IoT devices. We show that the aggregation period should be selected based on the channel quality, the offered rate, and the statistics of updates of the useful data structures. The results, obtained for the Ethereum protocol, illustrate the beneﬁts of the aggregation scheme in terms of a reduced duty cycle of the device, particularly for low signal-to-noise ratios, and the overall reduction of the amount of information transmitted in downlink from the wireless base station to the IoT device. A potential application of the proposed scheme is to let the IoT device request more information than actually needed, hence increasing its privacy, while keeping the communication cost constant. In the conclusion, this paper is the ﬁrst to provide rigorous guidelines for the design of lightweight blockchain protocols with wireless connectivity.
Regional Blockchain for Vehicular Networks to Prevent 51% Attacks
The next generation of vehicles will be autonomous, connected, electric, and intelligent with distinct requirements such as high mobility, low latency, real-time applications, seamless connectivity, and security. Blockchain can provide a good solution to the issue of secure message dissemination or secure information sharing in vehicular networks with a weak trust relationship among the nodes. In this paper, we investigate the design of a regional blockchain for VANETs, where the blockchain is shared among nodes in a geographically bounded area. We investigate how to design the regional blockchain while achieving a low 51% attack success probability. We derive a condition that guarantees a low 51% attack success probability in terms of the numbers of good nodes and malicious nodes, the message delivery time, and the puzzle computation time. The condition can provide a useful guideline for selection of several control parameters guaranteeing the stable operation of the blockchain. We run several simulations to show the validity of the conditionandinvestigatetheeffectsofvariousparametersonthe51% attack success probability. Ouranalysis and simulation results show that maintaining a low message delivery time for good nodes is very important in protecting the stability of the blockchain system.
Trustworthy Electronic Voting Using Adjusted Blockchain Technology
The electronic voting has emerged over time as a replacement to the paper-based voting to reduce the redundancies and inconsistencies. The historical perspective presented in the last two decades suggests that it has not been so successful due to the security and privacy ﬂaws observed over time. This paper suggests a framework by using effective hashing techniques to ensure the security of the data. The concept of block creation and block sealing is introduced in this paper. The introduction of a block sealing concept helps in making the blockchain adjustable to meet the need of the polling process. The use of consortium blockchain is suggested, which ensures that the blockchain is owned by a governing body (e.g., election commission), and no unauthorized access can be made from outside. The framework proposed in this paper discusses the effectiveness of the polling process, hashing algorithms’ utility, block creation and sealing, data accumulation, and result declaration by using the adjustable blockchain method. This paper claims to apprehend the security and data management challenges in blockchain and provides an improved manifestation of the electronic voting process.
Blockchain-Enabled Wireless Internet of Things: Performance Analysis and Optimal Communication Node Deployment
Blockchain has shown a great potential in Internet of Things (IoT) ecosystems for establishing trust and consensus mechanisms without involvement of any third party. Understanding the relationship between communication and blockchain as well as the performance constraints posing on the counterparts can facilitate designing a dedicated blockchainenabled IoT systems. In this paper, we establish an analytical model for the blockchain-enabled wireless IoT system. By considering spatio-temporal domain Poisson distribution, i.e., node geographical distribution in spatial domain and transaction arrival rate in time domain are both modeled as Poisson point process (PPP), we ﬁrst derive the distribution of signalto-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR), blockchain transaction successful rate as well as overall throughput. Based on the system model and performance analysis, we design an algorithm to determine the optimal full function node deployment for blockchain system under the criterion of maximizing transaction throughput. Finally, the security performance is analyzed in the proposed networks with three typical attacks. Solutions such as physical layer security are presented and discussed to keep the system secure under these attacks. Numerical results validate the accuracy of our theoretical analysis and optimal node deployment algorithm.
A Survey on Blockchain-Based Internet Service Architecture: Requirements, Challenges, Trends, and Future
The emergence of Internet protocol suites and packet-switching technologies tends to the considerations of security, privacy, scalability, and reliability in layered Internet service architectures. The existing service systems allow us to access big data, but few studies focus on the fundamental security and stability in these systems, especially when they involve large-scale networks with overloaded private information. In this paper, we explored the blockchain-based mechanism that aims to improve the critical features of traditional Internet services, including autonomous and decentralized processing, smart contractual enforcement of goals, and traceable trustworthiness in tamper-proof transactions. Furthermore, we provide a comprehensive review to conceptualize the blockchain-based frame work to develop the decentralized protocols for the extensive number of Internet services. This comprehensive survey aims to address blockchain integration to secure Internet services and identify the critical requirements of developing a decentralized trustworthy Internet service. Additionally, we present a case study of the blockchain-based Internet of Things (IoT) for neuro-informatics to illustrate the potential applications of blockchain architectures. Finally, we summarize the trends and challenges of blockchain architectures that beneﬁt a multitude of disciplines across all the Internet service ﬁelds of interest.
Blockchain Technology in the Oil and Gas Industry: A Review of Applications, Opportunities, Challenges, and Risks.
Blockchain technology has been developed for more than ten years and has become a trend in various industries. As the oil and gas industry is gradually shifting toward intelligence and digitalization, many large oil and gas companies were working on blockchain technology in the past two years because of it can signiﬁcantly improve the management level, efﬁciency, and data security of the oil and gas industry. This paper aims to let more people in the oil and gas industry understand the blockchain and lead more thinking about how to apply the blockchain technology. To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the earliest papers on the review of the blockchain system in the oil and gas industry. This paper ﬁrst presents the relevant theories and core technologies of the blockchain, and then describes how the blockchain is applied to the oil and gas industry from four aspects: trading, management and decision making, supervision, and cyber security. Finally, the application status, the understanding level of the blockchain in the oil and gas industry, opportunities, challenges, and risks and development trends are analyzed. The main conclusions are as follows: 1) at present, Europe and Asia have the fastest pace of developing the application of blockchain in the oil and gas industry, but there are still few oil and gas blockchain projects in operation or testing worldwide; 2) nowadays, the understanding of blockchain in the oil and gas industry is not sufﬁciently enough, the application is still in the experimental stage, and the investment is not enough; and (3)blockchain can bring many opportunities to the oil and gas industry, such as reducing transaction costs and improving transparency and efﬁciency. However, since it is still in the early stage of the application, there are still many challenges, primarily technological, and regulatory and system transformation. The development of blockchains in the oil and gas industry will move toward hybrid blockchain architecture, multi-technology combination, cross-chain, hybrid consensus mechanisms, and more interdisciplinary professionals.
An Energy-Efﬁcient Transaction Model for the Blockchain-Enabled Internet of Vehicles (IoV)
The blockchain is a safe, reliable, and innovative mechanism for managing numerous vehicles seeking connectivity. However, following the principles of the blockchain, the number of transactions required to update ledgers poses serious issues for vehicles as these may consume the maximum available energy. To resolve this, an efﬁcient model is presented in this letter, which is capable of handling the energy demands of the blockchain-enabled Internet of Vehicles by optimally controlling the number of transactions through distributed clustering. Numerical results suggest that the proposed approach is 40.16% better in terms of energy conservation and 82.06% better in terms of the number of transactions required to share the entire blockchain data compared with the traditional blockchain.
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